The national question in Ireland, which is soon to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the uprising that led to independence, has dominated politics throughout the 20th century. The 2016 elections are being hailed by some as a watershed, with the country’s historical political divisions breaking down.
CommonSpace looks at the Irish party system and how it is changing.
Who is Fine Gael?
Founded in 1933, Fine Gael was created by a merger of several right of centre parties, including the pro-treaty government which held office between 1923 and 1932.
It was eclipsed by Fianna Fail throughout most of the 20th century, taking office only fitfully in uneasy coalitions with smaller parties.
It formed a coalition government with the Labour party in 2011, which has imposed harsh austerity measures. The result is that Fine Gail’s number of seats has fallen from 76 to a possible 52. Though it remains the largest party, its coalition is in tatters and its leader, Enda Kenny, faces an unenviable choice between minority rule and creating an unlikely coalition with Fianna Fail.
Who is Fianna Fail?
Founded in 1926 by Eamon De Valera, the first president of the Irish Republic and the towering figure of Irish politics, the party represented a political project of the anti-treaty republican movement. Through its early governments it worked to transform the Irish Free State of the treaty into the Irish Republic, removing the vestiges of British rule.
Party leader Michael Martin has led a relative recovery for the party from 20 to a likely 43 seats in this election.
Who is Sinn Fein?
It has seen its best election ever in the Republic of Ireland, increasing its number of seats from 14 to 23 by campaigning against austerity, corruption and and the political establishment of Fianna Fail and Fine Gael.
Though the party still campaigns to end the partition of Ireland created by the treaty of 1922, it has adopted a pragmatic approach, dealing with issues of immediate concern to the electorate.
Sinn Fein has pledged not to join either of Ireland’s two major parties in a coalition, wanting to present itself as the authentic opposition to the political centre.
What about other parties?
The Social Democrats hold three seats, the Greens have two. Renua, a right wing split from Fine Gael, gained no seats. The xenophobic ‘Identity Ireland’ likewise failed to make a breakthrough.
So what does all of this mean?
The Labour party has already thrown its backing behind Enda Kenny to remain Taoiseach, or prime minister – giving him 59 seats. He will attempt to reconstruct his government, probably by making deals with some the 22 independents. He will argue he maintains the right to form a government, with his party holding the largest number of seats.